1938-11-09 Berlin, Germany / Crystal Night / Kristallnacht / Noite de Cristal / Noche de Cristal

Jewish homes, hospitals, and schools were ransacked, as the attackers demolished buildings with sledgehammers. Fires were lit, and prayer books, scrolls, artwork and philosophy texts were thrown upon them.

Over 1,000 synagoges were burned, many Jewish cemeteries and over 7,000 Jewish businesses were either destroyed or damaged. 91 Jewish people were murdered during the attacks. 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps.

After this, the Jewish community was fined 10 billion reichsmarks. In addition, it cost 40 million marks to repair the windows. ‘Kristallnacht’ changed the nature of the persecution from economic, political, and social to physical with beatings, incarceration, and murder; the event is often referred to as the beginning of the Holocaust.

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