The Old Man and the Sea is a short novel written by the American author Ernest Hemingway in 1951 in Bimini, Bahamas. It was the last major work of fiction by Hemingway that was published during his lifetime. One of his most famous works, it tells the story of Santiago, an aging Cuban fisherman who struggles with a giant marlin far out in the Gulf Stream off the coast of Florida. In 1953, The Old Man and the Sea was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, and it was cited by the Nobel Committee as contributing to their awarding of the Nobel Prize in Literature to Hemingway in 1954. Hemingway donated his Nobel prize gold medal in thanksgiving to the venerated Marian image of Our Lady of Charity.
The novel was initially received with much popularity; it restored many readers’ confidence in Hemingway’s capability as an author. Shortly after the publication, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill health for much of his remaining life. During his final years, Hemingway’s behavior had been similar to his father’s before he killed himself. Hemingway was constantly worried about money and his safety. Hemingway deliberately shot himself with his favorite shotgun. Lonely Day.
The Old Man and the Sea has been adapted for the screen three times: a 1958 film starring Spencer Tracy, a 1990 miniseries starring Anthony Quinn, and a 1999 animated short film.